Ethnic Mongols account for about 97% of the population and consist of Khalkh and other groups, all distinguished primarily by dialects of the Mongolian language. The Khalkhs make up 86% of the ethnic Mongol population.

The remaining 14% include Oirats, Buryats and others. Ethnic distinctions among the Mongol subgroups are relatively minor. Language or tribal differences are not a political or social issue.

Significant Ethnic Turkic speaker Kazakhs constitute 3.9% of Mongolia's population and the other Tuvan, Khoton, Chantuu, Tsaatan are Mongolized people with Turkic origin and speak in Mongolian.

In the 19th century, the advance of the Russian Empire troops pushed Kazakhs to neighboring countries. In around 1860, part of the Middle jüz Kazakhs came to Mongolia and were allowed to settle down in Bayan-Ölgii Province.

Smaller numbers of Russian, Chinese, Korean and American people working in Mongolia, since 1990.

English is the most widely used foreign language followed by Russian. Lately, Japanese, Korean and German are gaining popularity.